Predicative Possession (Oxford Studies in Typology and Linguistic Theory)

By Leon Stassen

This can be the 1st entire remedy of the suggestions hired within the world's languages to precise predicative ownership, as in "the boy has a bat". It provides the result of the author's fifteen-year examine venture at the topic. Predicative ownership is the resource of many grammaticalization paths - as within the English excellent demanding shaped from to have - and its typology is a crucial key to realizing the structural number of the world's languages and the way they modify. Drawing on info from a few four hundred languages representing the entire world's language households, so much of which lack an in depth resembling the verb to have, Professor Stassen goals (a) to set up a typology of 4 uncomplicated kinds of predicative ownership, (b) to find and describe the methods during which general structures will be converted, and (c) to discover hyperlinks among the typology of predicative ownership and different typologies so one can show styles of interdependence. He exhibits, for instance, that the parameter of simultaneous sequencing - the best way a language officially encodes a chain like "John sang and Mary danced" - correlates with how it encodes predicative ownership. via this and different hyperlinks the writer units up a unmarried common version on the way to account for all morphosyntactic version in predicative ownership present in the languages of the area, together with styles of edition through the years.

Predicative Possession will curiosity students and complicated scholars of language typology, diachronic linguistics, morphology and syntax.

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E˜ ‘to be at a spot’ (Helberg Chavez 1984: 298–9). circumstances of the ownership development are: (15) Amarakaeri (Harakmbet) a. Mbapa? ih-to˜-e˜-me 3 1sg. indic-with-be-past ‘I had 3 (dogs)’ (Helberg Chavez 1984: 432) Transitivization 215 b. Wahey waiwit kenpaci o˜? -to˜-e˜ stem root and 3pl-with-be ‘They (i. e. the crops) have stems and roots’ (Helberg Chavez 1984: 420) Piraha˜, a language of Amazonia, has a possessive development which positive factors the – possibly transitive – complicated verbal merchandise xao-xaaga. the second one half of this merchandise is obviously the verb xaaga ‘be’, which plays either copular and locative/existential features within the language. As for the Wrst half, the resource doesn't supply any clues except the gloss ‘possn’ (i. e. possession). it's attainable that xao- is a verb stem, because the mixture of verb stems right into a complicated verb is a standard alternative in Piraha˜ verbal morphology (cf. xab-op ‘turn-go > return’, xiga-hoag ‘take-come > bring’, xig-ab-op ‘take-turn-go > convey back’; see Everett 1986: 300–1), yet what that verb stem may well suggest is still doubtful. it's also possible that the thing xao ahas a few semantic dating to the instrumental case marker -xai ‘with’. (16) Pirah~ a (Mura) Ti poohahai xaibai xao-xaaga 1sg Wshing. arrow many possn-be ‘I have many Wshing arrows’ (Everett 1986: 204) In part five. three. 1, we've seen that the Tupı´-Guaranıĺanguages Guaranı´, Tupinamba, and Guajajara have a possessive development that would be analysed as a predicativized version of a subject Possessive. moreover, those languages have a development that includes a have-verb reko/riko/ereko. (17) Tupinamb a (Tupian, Tupı´-Guaranı´) Xa-reko miape 1sg-have bread ‘I have bread’ (Parissier 1903: 27) (18) Guajajara (Tupian, Tupı´-Guaranı´) Ce omo apyaw u-imaw i-ereko-n there a few fellow his-domestic. animal 3sg-have-obl. best a? e no he prt ‘Some fellow had his family animal there’ (Bendor-Samuel 1972: 191) (19) Paraguayan Guarani (Tupian, Tupı´-Guaranı´) Entero animal a-reko all animal 1sg-have ‘I have every kind of animals’ (Gregores and Suarez 1967: 210) 216 The typology of predicative ownership This verb reko/riko/ereko is a monomorphemic merchandise for present-day audio system, however it derives traditionally from a locational verb eko/iko ‘be (in motion)’ plus a transitivizing preWx ro-. This preWx has causative-comitative or ‘reciprocal- causative’ which means: it shows that the topic plays or undergoes the motion, yet that there's additionally an instantaneous item that's triggered or compelled by way of the topic to perform/undergo the motion besides (see Platzmann 1874: 141, on Tupinamba). therefore, from a verb quer ‘sleep’ a causative-comitative transitive verb might be shaped, as in sentence (20): (20) Tupinamb a (Tupian, Tupı´-Guaranı´) A-ro-quer xe-raira 1sg-pref-sleep my-son ‘I sleep and reason my son to sleep’: ‘I sleep including my son’ (Platzmann 1874: 141) A moment version of Have-Drift from a With-Possessive building is composed within the verbalization of the indirect marker at the possessee NP.

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