By Suzanne Romaine
This quantity bargains with the heritage of the English language from 1776 to the current day. an intensive advent information the altering socio-historical surroundings within which English has constructed in accordance with a continuous heritage of variety because it was once transplanted to North the US and past. Separate chapters on pronunciation, syntax, and vocabulary chronicle the center linguistic beneficial properties of the language in this interval. furthermore, there are chapters on English as a literary language, English grammar and utilization, and position names. A separate quantity on North American English is in practise.
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Additional info for The Cambridge History of the English Language, Volume 4: 1776-1997
Except a few examples from the 15th century and a few uncertain theological usages from numerous sessions (see Denison 1993a: 395), the revolutionary of variety (146b) is first recorded within the particularly casual utilization of Keats, as Jespersen spotted (1909—49: IV 225): (147) you can be joyful to listen to . . . how diligent i've been, and am being. (1819 Keats, Utters 137 p. 357 (11 Jul. )) yes reference works (Mosse 1938: part 266, Visser 1963—73: part 1834) wrongly adduce prior examples of the next kind: 146 Cambridge Histories on-line © Cambridge collage Press, 2008 Syntax (148) a. yet this can be being depraved, for wickedness sake. (1761 Johnston, Chrysalll l. x. sixty five) b. I should have paid my respects to her if attainable. / / used to be being very poor. (1816 Austen, Emma II. xiv[xxxii] . 280) c. and he or she was once so satisfied herself, that there has been no being serious (ibid. III. xv[li]. 444) (It is Phillipps (1970: 117) who cites (148c), claiming extra carefully that through such gerundial utilization, 'Jane Austen does technique the trendy construction'. ) Mosse and Visser forget about the truth that examples like (148) don't seem to include a innovative verbal team is/was being2X all: particularly the verb is simply copula is or used to be, linking (usually) an inanimate pronoun topic (this, it, there) to a gerundial word being + AP. the topic isn't an argu ment of the adjective word. a real innovative of B E will be as in (149): forty four (149) i used to be being very poor. Given the structural assumptions of part three. three above, we might have very various analyses: forty five (150) a. It [ was once ] [ being very poor ] (for (148b)) b. I [ was once being ] [ very poor ] (for (149)) v v Np Ap The date of advent of the true (149) sort, and the type of textual content it first seemed in, have a major concerning the innovative passive, which additionally incorporates a syntagm of the sort is being, see part three. three. three. four under. the place the supplement of being is a noun word instead of an adjectival word, we needs to wait till good into the 19th century for solid examination ples: forty six (151) a. i actually imagine this disease is being an excellent factor for me. (1834 R. H. Froude Rem. (1838) I. 378 [OED\) b. person who experiences isn't being a idiot (1871 Meredith, Harry Richmond (Scribner's, 1910) xxx. 323 [Visser]) Visser devotes his (1963—73: part 1841) to the revolutionary of H A V E , a verb which in beginning has the stative that means 'possess'. The proof are of pos sible value to the divergence of H A V E into auxiliary and nonauxiliary verbs, as we will see in part three. three. nine. With an instantaneous item, H A V E hardly ever happens within the revolutionary in ModE earlier than the 19th century, after which by no means within the which means 'possess'. a few of Visser's citations may be predated from the quotations within the OED, and without doubt there are nonetheless prior ones to be came across; see Warner (1995: 546) for an instance of havingfun in 1787 Blake: 147 Cambridge Histories on-line © Cambridge collage Press, 2008 David Denison (152) a. we're now having a spell of wind and rain.